That it difference failed to apply at new European sex pros

That it difference failed to apply at new European sex pros

The difficulty away from Trafficking

Trafficking arrived on the political plan just after tension off feminists and the federal women’s policy agency. To start with, feminine was trafficked away from Southeast Asia (significantly Thailand as well as the Philippines), Latin America (Columbia while the Dominican Republic and Africa (Ghana); following fall of your own Berlin Wall, exchange paths managed to move on to Main and you may East European countries. Governmental demands had been defining the fresh new offense way more generally to support prosecution and increasing the penalty of five to six decades, so that offenders will be held into the remand child custody. The newest blogs from the penal code into people trafficking have been changed inside the 1993, with a very right concept of the offense and better punishment for traffickers (Outshoorn 2004a: 195). The fresh content was basically presented into the good gender-neutral ways, and trafficking remained identified as pressuring a guy on the prostitution.

In the parliamentary debates on trafficking around that period, foreign women were portrayed as victims of unscrupulous traffickers tricked into prostitution. This framing was tied into a discourse about the divide between the rich and poor countries: female prostitutes from the ‘Third World’ were driven by poverty. Gradually, a more insidious edge crept into this discourse when Christian Democrats in parliament linked trafficking to illegal migration, opening a space for ‘false’ victims, who used the loopholes in the law to work illegally as a prostitute in the Netherlands (HTK, 1991–1992, TK 81, pp. 4994, 4995, e time they also started to argue that all women from non-EU countries working in the sex industry were victims of forced prostitution. Therefore in their view, the best remedy to stop trafficking was to prevent non-EU women from working in the Dutch sex industry in the first place. This reasoning eradicated the figure of a woman migrant deciding to work as a sex worker in the West and who might make use of intermediaries to enter the country-with her consent. But then she was ‘illegal’ and ought to be deported.

Successive cabinets continued to refuse work permits on similar grounds, also arguing there was no national interest at stake which normally justifies extending work permits to non-EU persons. They were backed by a recurring majority in parliament; the parliamentary records show many references to the fear of foreign prostitutes entering the country which would subvert immigration policies. The fear resurfaced in the memorandum to the bill to lift the brothel ban, as one of the aims of the bill was to halt ‘the stream of foreign prostitutes’ (HTK 1996–97, 25437 (Opheffing Algemeen Bordeelverbod), no. 3 (Memorie van Toelichting), 1 July 1997, p. 13). The refusal to grant work permits was also generally justified by the aim of stopping the trafficking of women; permits would encourage traffickers to transport women into the country.

Kinds of Sex Experts

Subsequent implementation of this new operate resulted in the building of no less than five categories of prostitutes. First, you’ve got the ethnically undefined Dutch sex personnel just who voluntarily determines to get results within the prostitution that’s the latest holder regarding municipal and you can personal legal rights. Subsequently, you will find the brand new prostitutes off their European union countries who’ll move easily inside and outside of your Netherlands and you will work in the newest sex world. This category split up into one or two kinds following accession to your Eu of one’s Baltic States, Poland, Hungary, this new Czech Republic and you may Slovakia into the 2004, and come up with a third group whom can only legally act as prostitutes whenever they were independent sex gurus and not group. When you look at the 2007, sex experts regarding the brand new Eu professionals had been recognized towards an enthusiastic equal ground for the old European union affiliate professionals, nevertheless third class are today filled with sex professionals from Bulgaria and Romania when each other countries registered the fresh Eu in this exact same 12 months. Like their predecessors, these women are permitted to behave as separate sex specialists, however, up until now far less personnel.

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